Supporting Documents - From the project RIBuild

Quasi-Monte Carlo based uncertainty analysis: Sampling efficiency and error estimation in engineering applications
November 2019 - Posted: 2019-11-08
By: Tianfeng Hou, Dirk Nuyens, Staf Roels, Hans Janssen
Publisher: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Volume 191

In probabilistic assessment via Monte Carlo sampling efficiency is of high importance. It is shown that Quasi-Monte Carlo mostly performs better than standard Monte Carlo. Depending on the smoothness of the function and the number of dominant parameters. Randomization techniques on Quasi-Monte Carlo allows assessing sampling accuracy.In probabilistic assessment via Monte Carlo sampling efficiency is of high importance. It is shown that Quasi-Monte Carlo mostly performs better than standard Monte Carlo. Depending on the smoothness of the function and the number of dominant parameters. Randomization techniques on Quasi-Monte Carlo allows assessing sampling accuracy.

To learn more information about the project please go to the RIBuild website.

Trilemma of historic buildings: Smart district heating systems, bioeconomy and energy efficiency
November 2019 - Posted: 2019-11-08
By: Andra Blumberga, Ritvars Freimanis, Indra Muizniece, Kriss Spalvins, Dagnija Blumberga
Publisher: Energy, Volume 186

Novel insulation material made from pine needles based on bioeconomy principles is tested. Insulation material without/with lime treatment was tested for application as internal insulation for historic buildings. Insulation material is highly porous, has high moisture transfer and storage capacity, and is good hygric regulator. No mold growth was detected at 85% relative humidity for lime treated samples.

Neural networks for metamodelling the hygrothermal behaviour of building components
September 2019 - Posted: 2019-11-08
By: Astrid Tijskens, Staf Roels, Hans Janssen
Publisher: Building and Environment, Volume 162

A metamodel with a memory mechanism is required to accurately predict hygrothermal time series. Recurrent neural networks and dilated causal convolutional networks are able to capture the complex patterns of the hygrothermal response. To predict the relative humidity, dilated causal convolutional neural networks perform significantly better than recurrent neural networks. Dilated causal convolutional networks are 10 times faster to train on the current example, compared to recurrent neural networks.

The effects of wind-driven rain on the hygrothermal conditions behind wooden beam ends and at the interfaces between internal insulation and existing solid masonry
August 2019 - Posted: 2019-11-08
By: Tessa Kvist Hansen, Søren Peter Bjarløv, Ruut Peuhkuri
Publisher: Energy and Buildings, Volume 196

Wind-driven rain (WDR) quantification performed experimentally on 2 case buildings. Effect of WDR on hygrothermal conditions in internally insulated masonry studied. Numerical simulations to determine WDR effect on hygrothermal performance. WDR models were found to overestimate WDR deposition. Direct influence of WDR events on RH behind insulation was not detected.

Hygric properties of porous building materials (IV) Semi-permeable membrane and psychrometer methods for measure moisture storage curves
April 2019 - Posted: 2020-04-21
By: Chi Feng, Hans Janssen
Publisher: Building and Environment

The moisture storage curve is an important hygric property of porous building materials. It describes the moisture storage characteristic of a material via the relation between the moisture content and the moisture potential. Current experimental protocols for measuring moisture storage curves are not satisfactory, as they often require extensive facilities while still lacking the capability to handle the adsorption process in most of the over-hygroscopic range. This paper proposes two novel and simple methods – the semi-permeable membrane method and the psychrometer method – to solve these issues. Measurements on calcium silicate, autoclaved aerated concrete and ceramic brick are performed and validated by comparing the experimental outcomes obtained from these two novel methods and from other existing protocols. It is proven that the semi-permeable membrane method and the psychrometer method are applicable for both adsorption and desorption processes, the latter both from saturated and capillary moisture content. Limited by the accuracy of the psychrometer and the condensation caused by temperature fluctuations, these two methods show their best applicable range for capillary pressures below −1·105?Pa. The semi-permeable membrane method and the psychrometer method also feature in low cost, simple handling and application efficiency.

Effect of temperature and relative humidity on algae biofouling on different fired brick surfaces
February 2019 - Posted: 2019-11-08
By: Enrico Quagliarini, Andrea Gianangeli, Marco D'Orazio, Benedetta Gregorini, Andrea Osimani, Lucia Aquilanti, Francesca Clementi
Publisher: Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 199

Microalgae biofouling on different porous and rough fired brick surfaces was studied. Its growth under different values of relative humidity and temperature was tested. At relative humidity lower than 98% no growth was present. Temperature influenced algae growth rate and covered area as a function of time. Biofouling experimental results were modelled by a modified Avrami’s law.

Building Retrofit Measures and Design: A Probabilistic Approach for LCA
October 2018 - Posted: 2019-11-14
By: Claudio Favi, Elisa Di Giuseppe, Marco D’Orazio, Marta Rossi and Michele Germani
Publisher: Sustainability

This paper presents a new and structured approach to address uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to support the decision-making process in building renovation. This “probabilistic” approach to LCA allows for the obtaining of results expressed as ranges of environmental impacts and for alternative solutions, offering an idea of the meaning of input parameters’ uncertainties and their influence on the result. The methodology application is illustrated through a case study where three building retrofit measures were assessed. Results provide an insight about the uncertainties of LCA indicators in terms of climate change and non-renewable energy.

Laboratory Investigation of Latvian Historic Brick and Measurements of Water Movement in Historic Masonry Walls
May 2017 - Posted: 2019-11-14
By: Reinis Purvins, Edite Biseniece, Andra Blumberga
Publisher: Energy Procedia

Experimental laboratory tests including density, water absorption, soluble salts, compressive strength and freeze-thaw resistance have been done on clay, concrete and silicate bricks from 6 masonry buildings in Latvia following CEN standards with adjustments for historic bricks. In addition, in-situ measurements of moisture content in brick masonry walls were done over a 5 month period using Trotec micro-wave apparatus.

State of the art on historic building insulation materials and retrofit strategies
March 2016 - Posted: 2019-11-14
By: Andra Blumberga, Kristaps Kašs, Edite Kamendere, Gatis Žogla, Agris Kamenders, Dagnija Blumberga, Armands Gravelsinš, Reinis Purvinš, Marika Roša, Lelde Timma, Hans Janssen, Peggy Freudenberg, Fredrik Stahl, Ruut Peuhkuri, Pierryves Padey, Sebastien Lasvaux, Elisa di Giuseppe, Ernst Jan de Place Hansen
Publisher: RIBuild Deliverable D1.2

This report provides an analysis and evaluation of a state-of-the-art of internal insulation materials and methods for application in historic buildings, and review on methods, tools and guidelines used as decision-making tools for implementation of internal insulation in historic buildings. The survey is limited to buildings with heavy walls (stone, brick, timber framing), thus excluding wooden buildings.


Supporting Documents - Other relevant literature by Task authors

Categorization of South Tyrolean Built Heritage with Consideration of the Impact of Climate Change
December 2019 - Posted: 2020-04-20
By: Lingjun Hao, Daniel Herrera-Avellanosa, Claudio Del Pero, and Alexandra Troi
Publisher: Climate 2019, 7(12), 139

Wooden windows in the historic alpine architecture: Balancing energy and conservation needs
December 2018 - Posted: 2020-04-20
By: Daniel Herrera, Dagmar Exner, Marco Larcher, Alexandra Troi
Publisher: PLEA 2018 HONG KONG

Life cycle assessment in improving the sustainability of existing buildings: Some issues in historic buildings
July 2018 - Posted: 2018-10-12
By: Hao, L., Lavagna, M., Troi, A., & Herrera, D.

The XII Italian LCA Network Conference. Life Cycle Thinking in decision-making for sustainability: from public policies to private businesses, 11-12 June 2018, Messina, Italy.